Walls of Seville - Neighborhood of Macarena
Due to its geographic location and to the navegability of th river Guadalquivir, Seville was fortificated with walls in the times of Carthaginians, then built with wood and mud.
With the roman domination and in the times of Julius Caesar, wood was replaced by the walls that, later, and already in the almorávide epoch, duplicated them, strengthening them before the explosion of Christianity.
There were seven kilometers of walls, with 166 towers, 12 gates and 3 shutters. This magnificent work was conserved in its totality until 1868, revolution toppled it almost for complete, being conserved nowadays the Murallas de la Macarena (Walls of Macarena), in Macarena Quarter, that counts with seven square towers and an hexagonal one, some tranches in the Parque del Valle (the Valley Park) and the rest in the Alcázar.
The walls and the roman gates were destroyed for complete in 913, by the califa Abd al Rahman III, to avoid the attempts of secession against the authority of Córdoba, converted by this califa in the capital of Al-Andalus, against Seville.
Proffessor Juan de María Carriazo and Arroqula published an enlightening article based in the investigations of his teacher Manuel Gómez Moreno, who documented in 1032 the arab origin of the last Seville Walls, being surpassed the roman origin sustained by previous historians.
The walls and gates of Roman origin were held by the Arabs when they arrived in 711. But two centuries later, the walls and gates were completely destroyed by the caliph Abd al-Rahman III al-Nasir (912-961), to prevent attempts of secession against the authority of Cordoba, converted by this Caliph in the capital of Al -Andalus, to the detriment of Seville.